The Chadwyck-Healey Liberation Collection (1944-46) consists mainly of books, but also contains a number of French and English songs and music scores, some with striking illustrations. They appear either as individual leaflets or as part of larger compilations, including the lyrics and in some cases notated music. On the anniversary of VE Day (Victory in Europe), the end of the Second World War on 8 May 1945, we would like to shed light on two illustrated covers for songs of the Liberation that we displayed on the occasion of the 2019 Liberation lecture (Normandy ’44 by James Holland).
The Chant des Partisans, presented as THE song of the liberation, was the most popular song of the Free French and French Resistance during World War II. It was the object of a recent exhibition, “Le Chant des partisans – création et diffusion” held at the Musée de l’Ordre de Libération (October 2019 – January 2020), in partnership with the Musée de l’Armée, in Paris (see their additional resources). The song was composed in 1943 in London by the Franco-Russian singer and songwriter Anna Marly, after a popular Russian air. You can listen to the radio podcast of France Musique: “Anna Marly, la compositrice du Chant des partisans”. Her other wartime compositions include La complainte du partisan, and Une Chanson à trois temps.
The lyrics were translated into French by the writers Maurice Druon and his uncle Joseph Kessel, who both joined the resistant network Forces Françaises de l’Intérieur. At the time, the French anthem was banned, so the Chant des partisans quickly became a very popular replacement: “La nouvelle Marseillaise” (especially within the Résistance), according to the quote of the American journalist Quentin Reynold[s] featuring on the cover:
C’est le chant de la Liberté
Le chant des partisans français
C’est le chant d’un peuple qui veut être libre…
C’est le chant des hommes
Qui ne veulent pas être esclaves
(This is the song of liberty, the song of the French partisans, the song of a people who want to be free, the song of those, who will never be enslaved).
In this publication by Editions Raoul Breton, the illustration by René Lefébure combines realistic and symbolic elements. It shows, with a perspective from below, the statue of Liberty (both a reference to the American engagement in the liberation of France and a powerful emblem of Franco-American historical friendship) breaking through the chains encircling a French village and the standing, if leaning, bell tower of its church surmounted by a Gallic symbol, the weathercock.
The second musical item we want to talk about is a collection of American songs, with parallel translations into French: The most famous tunes that Sammy sings. Sammy is the generic name given to the American soldier, the equivalent of Tommy for the British, a nickname which was widespread during World War I. It probably derives from “Uncle Sam”, the personification of the United States, who notably featured on soldiers’ recruitment posters. On the red cover illustrated by Sara Ginst, five young but distinctive American soldiers in khaki uniform sing a tune on a khaki jeep with an American flag.
Little is known about Sara Ginst, apart from the fact that she illustrated several music scores for Editions Salabert between 1943 and 1946, including Ceux du Maquis by M. Van Moppès, with music by Francis Chagrin; La Madelon de la Victoire by Lucien Boyer, with music by Borel-Clerc, or Hymnes des alliés, which was available in editions for both voice and piano, and violin and accordion.
All these songs feature on the catalogue page for Editions Salabert included on the inside front covers and last pages of the editions: the titles are grouped into different sets, which range from “Les chansons de la libération et de la victoire” (such as Le chant des F.F.I., Le grand Charles, All’s well mademoiselle or Hello Sammy – Hello Tommy) to the concert piece Chant de libération for ‘voix solo, choeur à l’unisson et grand orchestre’, after a poem by the playwright and screenwriter Bernard Zimmer, with music by the composer Arthur Honegger, or the “Chants et récits patriotiques” (such as La défense de Belfort or Marche coloniale).
What is interesting about the “Sammy songs” collection is that it does not focus on the most recent and trendy American music (such as the album Fats Waller et le swing, advertised in the compilation with a striking portrait), but rather on older, traditional American popular songs. Although American, the songs are not particularly military or war related (though ‘Joan of Arc’, for example, was composed during World War I), but constitute ‘happy or tender songs evoking images of the native land, the family, the dear house –only images of peace’:
Un grand gars kaki est passé près de vous, en fredonnant un air qui vous est inconnu… et vous vous demandez, avec la curiosité et la sympathie dont vous entourez ce qui vient d’Amérique : ‘Qu’est-ce qu’il chante ?’. Cet album… groupe les plus fameuses et les plus jolies chansons que chantent les soldats américains… des chansons joyeuses ou tendres qui n’évoquent que des images de la terre natale, de la famille, de la chère maison –rien que des images de paix.
According to the preface, getting to know these famous songs is a way for the French to understand better the US soldiers: they act as a medium for cultural encounter, and contribute to the spirit of optimism of the Liberation. All songs are provided in English with parallel French translations, most by the songwriter Jean Cis, with a few by Pierre Chapelle and Lucien Boyer. Francis Salabert himself is often credited with the harmonisation.
In fact, apart from their titles, the striking covers, advertisements and prefaces, the songs have very little to do with the Second World War. The publication could be considered as a skilful advertising stunt by the music publisher Salabert, who may have taken advantage of the arrival of the American soldiers to issue and sell a new edition of a stock of traditional American songs. A longer list of American songs, “les plus grands succès américains d’hier, d’aujourd’hui et de toujours”, including “jazz moderne”, also published by Salabert, features on the back covers.
A guest post from Irène Fabry-Tehranchi, who will be back later this year, with some more gems from the Liberation Collection.